Saturday, August 31, 2019

Hiv Prevention Strategy In Nigeria Health And Social Care Essay

Nigeria ‘s population of 140 million is the largest in Africa with 1 in 6 Africans being Nigerian. The information from the 2005 HIV study indicates that approximately 4.4 % of Nigerians are infected with HIV. The prevalence exhibits province broad disparity of between 1.6 % in Ekiti province ( south West ) and 10 % in Benue province ( north cardinal ) . ( Figure 1 ; NACA, 2007 ) While the infection rate is slower than some other African states, issues about HIV are still high on the docket because of the states high population. ( Figure 2 ; Jennifer Kates, Alyssa Wilson Leggoe, 2005 ) The Antenatal information shows that immature grownups appear most affected with 3.6 % amongst pregnant 15-19 twelvemonth olds and 4.7 % amongst 20-24 twelvemonth olds ( Figure 3 ; Technical Report National HIV/Syphilis Sero-Prevalence Sentinel Survey, 2005 ) This fact highlights the demand for a good co-ordinated National HIV/AIDS bar plan to farther decelerate down the infection rate and cut do wn incidence. ( NACA, 2007 ) Figure 1: HIV Prevalence by State ( 2005 ) Figure2 a ) Percentage of Adults estimated to be populating with HIV/AIDS and B ) Number of People estimated to be populating with HIV/AIDS. Beginning: HIV/AIDS Fact sheet, 2005 Figure 3: HIV Prevalence by Age group ( Old ages ) 2005 Drivers of the HIV Epidemic in Nigeria Informal Transactional Sexual activity: While commercial sex workers ( CSWs ) have long been identified as critical in impacting the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic rubber usage among them is high. A cardinal driver nevertheless is informal commercial sex among the general population ( J. Robinson, 2008 ; NACA, 2007 ) Low Risk Percept: 67 % of Nigerians perceive themselves to be at no hazard of undertaking HIV while 29 % perceive themselves to be at low hazard and merely 2 % rated their opportunities of infection high ( NARHS, 2005 ; NACA, 2007 ) Multiple Partnerships: In Nigeria, spiritual beliefs tend to back up the publicity of common fidelity ; NDHS ( 2003 ) nevertheless proved that multiple sexual partnerships are common particularly amongst sexually active work forces. About 30 % and 24 % single and married work forces severally reported holding more than one sexual spouse in the past twelvemonth ( NDHS 2003, NACA 2007 ) . While work forces with multiple spouses have a 60 % increased hazard, adult females are 10 % higher than work forces. ( NARHS, 2005 ) Lack of established STD Programming for Most at Risk Population ( MARP ) : Package of services provided to MARPs is limited. Linkages to HIV guidance and testing, STD direction and intervention are weak and have relied chiefly on referrals. Continuing Risky Behaviour of males in General Population: Hazardous behavior in the general population is more prevailing among work forces than adult females. 26 % of work forces report holding more than one sex spouse in the last twelvemonth as against 2 % in adult females. ( NARHS, 2005 ) Gender Inequalities: Underliing causes and effects of HIV/AIDS infections in work forces and adult females varies reflecting differences in biological science, sexual behavior, societal attitudes, economic power, exposure, and cultural attitudes that discourages safe sex dialogue. ( NACA, 2007 ) Economic Drivers: HIV impoverishes persons and communities through losingss of human resources. Poverty brings about low degrees of instruction associated with illiteracy and by and large hapless wellness position. These conditions result in hapless acceptance of behavior alteration which exposes the population to HIV infection. ( NACA, 2007 ) Equally shortly as an epidemic of HIV/AIDS was noticed in the state, Nigeria mounted a national response, which was expanded in 2000 with the constitution of the Presidential Council on AIDS ( PCA ) and the National Agency for the control of AIDS ( NACA ) . This allowed for a co-ordinated attempt to supply bar, intervention, attention and support services through policy preparation, development of programs and execution. NACA ‘s authorization provinces that: -A A 1.A A A Coordinate and prolong protagonism by all sectors and at all degrees for HIV/AIDS/STD expanded responses in Nigeria.A 2.A A A Develop the model for coaction and support from all stakeholders for a multi-sector and multi-disciplinary response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. 3.A A A Develop and present to the PCA, all programs on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria for policy determinations. 4.A A A Develop and joint a strategic program for an Expanded National Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.A 5.A A A Coordinate, proctor and measure the execution of the Strategic National Plan for the control of HIV/AIDS/STDs in Nigeria and all other approved policies.A 6.A A A Coordinate and ease the mobilisation of resources for an effectual and sustainable response to HIV/AIDS/STDs in Nigeria.A 7.A A A Undertake any other responsibilities as assigned by the PCA from clip to clip. ( NACA, 2007 ) The National HIV/AIDS Strategic Framework for Action ( 2005-2009 ) provides a strong and comprehensive model for bar attempts including a balanced â€Å" ABC † attack. In this model, in-school young persons were marked as a mark population group. Sexual activity instruction is a major constituent of bar and one of the tools in minimal bundle required for HIV bar. Political issues environing it include Resistance to arouse instruction and rubber publicity by Faith Based Organizations ( FBO ) , Religious leaders and other stakeholders Inadequate accomplishments on rubber usage and dialogue Misconception about sex instruction and low credence Availability, handiness and affordability Lack of policy environing sexual instruction in secondary schools ( NACA, 2007 ) A survey done in Nigeria analyzing the sexual behavior of secondary school striplings showed that the average age at first intercourse was 12 old ages with a scope of 6-19 old ages ; many of the participants had multiple sexual spouses and a hapless perceptual experience of the hazard of STD including HIV. It was recommended that a structured sexual instruction course of study be instituted for all schools get downing at an early age. ( A.T. Owolabi, A.A. Onayade et Al, 2005 ) Other surveies have examined how instructors feel about go throughing their cognition on HIV / AIDS bar steps to their pupils in the context of their cultural and societal norms that restrict unfastened treatment of sex.A The consequences showed a high degree of cognition about HIV / AIDS bar among teachers.A Nevertheless, instructors do non go through on this cognition because of cultural and societal taboos.A In add-on, instructors do non have proper preparation and motive on information, instruction and communicating on HIV / AIDS and sex instruction. ( Daniel C. Oshi et Al, 2005 ) It is hence necessary to increase handiness of sexual wellness services, create societal support for sex instruction in schools and build capacity on appropriate sex instruction. Previous efforts at supplying sex instruction were interfered by spiritual and cultural resistance. In 2000 a new course of study was introduced for comprehensive sex instruction for 10-18 twelvemonth olds which concentrated on bettering pupil ‘s cognition and attitudes to sexual wellness and cut downing hazardous sexual behavior. However the execution of the undertaking was a entire failure and has since been abandoned. ( Avert, 2010 ) In a state where issues such as confidentiality around HIV proving is non covered by statute law, where no action is taken when human rights are broken in relation to HIV infection and stigmatisation. It seems the destiny of the immature people are in their custodies, owing to the absence of generative wellness ( RH ) institutes and deficiency of separate Torahs or statute law for immature people in relation to HIV bar. ( United Nations Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, 2004 )POLICY AGENDA SettingTo accomplish this wellness policy, one must see the histrions that would be involved and analyze all stakeholders- so as to understand their behavior, purposes, inter-relations and involvements: and to measure the influence and resources they bring to bear on decision-making or execution procedure. ( Varvasovszky Z. , Brugha R. 2000 ) Stakeholder/ Actor analysis will place the type of people to interview, utilizing sweet sand verbena techniques, reappraisal questionnaires etc. It is of import to plan a semi-structured/ condense interview inquiries. Interviews will let comparison across cultural groups and faith ; and yet be sensitive to specific contexts. Stake holder ‘s position has to be transformed into one that utilizes indexs to exemplify the extent of the job. They need to be informed of graduated table, tendencies and likely future class of HIV epidemic in their part or territory and within specific subgroups of the population. Table 1: Stakeholders AnalysisStakeholdersEngagement in the issueInterest in the issueInfluence/ PowerPositionImpact of issue on histrionParents Participate in Child Sexual Education and can act upon their kids ‘s determination Medium Low Non-mobilized High Media Industry Promote stakeholder ‘s positions and can act upon determination shapers by supplying dependable information High High Supportive Low Ministry of Health Promote healthy generative picks, direction of STIs and HIV related unwellnesss High Medium Supportive High Presidential Council on AIDS Survey policy proposals and do determinations on them Medium High Non-mobilized Medium School Administration Participate in policy Execution High Medium Opposed High Ministry of Education Ensure sex instruction is integrated in national course of study and implemented Training of staff Policy Implementation and Evaluation High High Supportive High Bilateral Organizations Provide support and proficient support High High Supportive High Religious Leaderships Influence the population through spiritual, moral and cultural beliefs High High Opposed Medium Importers, Manufacturers and Sellers of the merchandise e.g. rubbers, text editions Provide low-cost and high quality merchandise Engagement in distribution High Low Supportive High NACA Develop and present to PCA all programs on HIV/AIDS in Nigeria for policy determinations High High Supportive High Documentary/ Content analysis would be undertaken to place the grade of consistence between the present policies in the state. It would besides cover how far policy shapers draw on research findings in addresss during policy preparation and execution phases. The information beginnings would include research publications and studies, statute law, administrative/executive ordinances or orders, reimbursement agreements, guidelines and advice, meeting studies and proceedingss, policy statements, addresss, and articles. An economic rating will be considered to measure and construe the value of this wellness intercession. This will mensurate the results in pecuniary footings every bit good as in wellness units. For this policy a cost effectivity analysis ( CEA ) will be more good in order to besiege the quandary of puting pecuniary value on human lives. It will compare the value of resources spent on the intercession to the measure of wellness gained as a consequence. ( David Wonderling et Al, 2005 ) A thorough apprehension of consistence of old policies with research findings, the grade of influence of research on policy docket scene, preparation and execution would be needed to guarantee a high degree of wellness research use in the determination devising of this wellness policy. CLARITY OF MESSAGE HIV bar, peculiarly sex instruction demands strong grounds in order to be recommended for consideration and broad spread execution. Hall ‘s theoretical account of docket puting claims that the strength of this grounds depends on the issue ‘s Legitimacy, Feasibility and Support. ( Kent Buse, 2005 ) The issue at manus is legitimate as the HIV epidemic continues to harry the state, heterosexual sex being the most reported signifier of transmittal and high rate among immature people. It is executable since the policy will be implemented logistically through already bing systems, cost and resources will hence be reduced. Support can be generated through act uponing the population with the usage of media, raising consciousness and advancing rubber usage, affecting FBOs in policy execution. There is besides no grounds that sex instruction or rubber handiness in schools will increase promiscuousness or cut down the age of first sexual intercourse of in school young person, hence this policy has no potency for inauspicious consequence. This policy ‘s acceptableness might be of concern, as there will be resistance from spiritual leaders and other involvement groups. This policy besides has other societal and wellness benefits, as the usage of rubbers will besides cut down other STIs, cut down unwanted gestations and the complications from illegal abortions, thereby cut downing maternal mortality. Previous work in Nigeria has shown that equal instruction works in HIV bar and this is soon being used to advance abstention and be faithful intercession plans. Kingdom ‘s Model proposes that there are 3 watercourses of policy procedure and they need to cross for policies to be considered. ( Kent Buse, 2005 ) Problem watercourse: High prevalence of HIV among in school young person, with the highest signifier of transmittal being heterosexual sex Politicss watercourse: The National HIV bar work program promotes condom scheduling and there have been ongoing arguments around this issue. In 2000, sex instruction was integrated into National course of study but was ne'er implemented. Meanwhile the prevalence amongst in school young person since so has increased. Policy watercourse: Following the 2005 National HIV/Syphilis Sero prevalence lookout study for pregnant adult females go toing Ante-natal clinics in Nigeria. NACA has mounted more response to HIV bar. More support for HIV bar is being provided by bilateral organisations and NACA has become unfastened to execution of policies through FBOs and CSOs. Interventions are now being chosen and funded based on scientific grounds research.POLICY FORMULATION AND IMPLEMENTATIONLegislators are influenced by media and runs, cultural beliefs, lobbyists, political parts and support every bit good as grounds based research. It is hence of import to guarantee they have adequate information from researches, prevalence of HIV and alternate solutions. The function of the media and other organisations can non be over emphatic. This policy proposes the debut of structured sex instruction with condom publicity in secondary schools across Nigeria It aims to cut down the prevalence of HIV/AIDS among in-school young persons Aims To better the cognition about HIV/AIDS amongst young person To raise the age of first sexual brush amongst in-school young person by 5 old ages in 10 old ages To promote rubber usage among in-school young person To increase the figure of in school young person seeking intervention and attention for other STIs by 20 % in 5 old ages To cut down teenage gestations by half in 5 old ages Resistance to this policy ‘s credence could be limited by ab initio influencing policy alteration in southern urban parts where it will be more acceptable and if successful, scaled up to other less urban countries utilizing traditional and spiritual leaders to act upon credence. A broad web and model of HIV/AIDS bar is soon on land in Nigeria, a assorted scanning attack will be ideal. A rational attack for explicating policies and go throughing the measure, which will be instantly diffused through the Ministry of Health to all schools An incremental attack by ab initio increasing the cognition of in-school young person on HIV/AIDS by presenting sex instruction into the school course of study, presenting text editions and stuffs that educate pupils on HIV/AIDS and subsequently up-scaling to include RH clinics to turn to early intervention and bar of STIs. Formation of in-school HIV nines and groups will supply a forum for pupils to aerate their positions on abstention, sexual exposure and bar patterns and eventually condom handiness and distribution. Cost will be reduced by utilizing bing resources and adult male power. Increased cognition of HIV/AIDS in the population with capacity edifice for instructors and in school young person will let for easy execution. A elaborate and careful pilot testing could be done in the relevant mark group to let for appropriate rating and alteration before broad spread execution. A underside up attack should besides be used to let for more engagement by implementers and uninterrupted rating and redefining of aims or schemes.EvaluationHIV bar intercessions are complex. There are legion intercessions and schemes to take from. The content and quality of intercessions may differ well from one another and intercessions may be implemented in different ways by different people. Specific intercessions may be interactive or even counter and yet most programmes will unite several intercession schemes, doing rating of the effects of specific intercessions or constituents within the programme bundle hard or impossible to extricate. ( UNAIDS, 2008 ) In measuring the effectivity of the policy, elaborate grounds on the existent procedure of bringing of the intercession that establishes the extent and quality of bringing will be gathered. Facility audit is besides of import to supply information on adequateness of substructure, equipment, proficient and operational guidelines. The success of the policy execution will besides be evaluated utilizing the five key United Nations General Assembly Special Session ( UNGASS ) ends. ( WHO Technical study series, 2006 ) Provide appropriate information to immature people and grounds of betterments in their resulting cognition Provide appropriate accomplishments developing to immature people and grounds of their ability to show these accomplishments, and utilize these accomplishments to diminish their hazard of going infected Supply appropriate skills-based preparation, equipment and supplies to implementers and grounds of this ensuing in increased bringing of effectual, high quality wellness services to immature people. Provide grounds of reduced exposure of HIV among immature people, such as alterations in the attitudes and behaviors of immature people Provide grounds of a decrease in HIV prevalence among immature people that can be attributed to the intercession Donabedian ‘s model for measuring health care conceptualizes â€Å" Inputs, Process and Outcome † . ( Kent Buse et Al, 2005 ) Table 2: Policy Implementation and EvaluationUndertaking IMPLEMENTATIONUndertaking EVALUATIONINPUT/RESOURCESACTIVITIES/INTERVENTION SERVICEEnd productOUTCOME/IMPACTMEASUREMENT METHOD/INDICATORSStaff Monitoring and rating preparation for plan directors and implementers Training of school nurses and instructors Training of spouses and stakeholders on young person and HIV Media preparation on Sexual activity instruction and Condom publicity Capacity edifice for implementers Change in supplier behavior in relation to school young person Change in supplier behavior in relation to describing systems Improvement in administrative and describing systems Experimental surveies Number of instructors and school nurses trained in supplying sexual instruction and wellness services to school young person Number of stakeholders trained on HIV and the young person Quality appraisal of describing systems Media support Awareness creative activity for rubber publicity to interrupt barriers Commission and air jangles on the impact of sex instruction on school young person. Media run aiming socio cultural issues disaggregated by age, sex and location. Media run on inter-generational sex Harmonization of stuff development, distribution and usage Increase consciousness on sex instruction and rubber rebranding Sexual activity instruction and sex literacy as a societal norm Condom usage as a societal norm Behavioural surveillance study Condom handiness and handiness Stigmatization around sex instruction and rubber usage Number of jangles aired on sex instruction and rubber usage among school young person Education Production and distribution of IEC Materials Production of text editions integrated with cognition of STI and HIV Development and version of course of study on sex instruction Sexual instruction Sessionss in schools Condom dialogue accomplishments developing for school young person Improve school young persons consciousness on HIV/AIDS Improve rubber negociating accomplishments among school young person Improve rubber usage among school young person Reduce STI incidence Reduce HIV morbidity and mortality Reduce teenage gestations and it ‘s complications Reduce maternal mortality associated with teenage gestations Annual National HI/AIDS sero-prevalence lookouts study among in school young person Prevalence of STI and HIV among school young person Number of teenage gestations and maternal deceases related to them No of rubber distributed No of school young person who used rubbers in their last sexual brush Facilities Handiness of friendly accessible service Centres for school young person within and outside the school Build effectual linkage/referral systems for STI direction in communities Establish regional offices through the Ministry of Education to supervise disposal and M & A ; E Increase entree to RH services Promote dealingss among assorted organisations involved Allow easy monitoring and rating of execution School young person will be able to entree RH services without stigmatisation Provide utile information on execution procedure and success Behavioural surveillance study No of young person accessing RH services before and after intercession No of RH services available to youth No of young person referred through linkage systems Research Population based study on Sexual activity instruction, rubber usage and publicity in school young person Increase cognition base on sex instruction and rubber scheduling Increase cognition on the young person ‘s sexual hazard behavior Making future sex instruction programming policies based on grounds based scientific research Experimental surveies Number of research proposals and surveies carried out on sex instruction, hazard behaviors, rubber scheduling and usage among school young person Community Mobilization Battle of FBOs, CSOs, community and spiritual groups and parents on HIV/AIDS cognition Skills and services community mobilisation for HIV Sensitization of community leaders against stigmatising or opposing sexual instruction among school young person Increase consciousness of FBOs, NGOs and parents on HIV and the young person Promote rubbers as a double method Rebrand rubber usage as a positive thing Engagement of policy execution at grass root degree Improve community consciousness and integrity in the battle against HIV/AIDS Enable societal and cultural credence about sex instruction Constitution of young person groups Experimental surveies Number of young person groups on HIV/AIDS advancing sex literacy and rubber usage Number of community stakeholders involved in young person groups Number of outreach events advancing sex instruction Advocacy/policy Recommending for policy reforms on socio-cultural and economic issues that promote HIV transmittal, stigma and favoritism among young person Increase consciousness of stakeholders on HIV and young person HIV and youth issues get on the policy docket Laws on HIV and young person, stigma and favoritism enacted Experimental surveies Nature and type of issues incorporated into the National Youth policy No of public hearings on the bill of exchange measure and Young person policyDecisionThe immature can non talk for themselves in doing lawful determinations that impact their ain lives. Their determinations are influenced by parents, the community, equal force per unit area, and their personal cognition. It is hence of import that the cognition they have is sufficient and diverse to enable them do informed determinations refering their sexual wellness. Surveies done have shown adequate grounds that sexual instruction addition in-school young person ‘s consciousness of HIV/AIDS and can act upon their attitude or do behaviour alteration. Health system research findings in the Nigeria will stay impotent unless translated into public wellness action through effectual public policy-making. ( Shamsuzzoha B Syed et al.,2008 ) Policy docket scene, preparation, execution and rating are all necessary phases in achieving policy alteration. In world, they all happen at the same time and can be revisited and changed while the procedure is ongoing. Stakeholder ‘s influence is really important in policy devising and acceptance. The media is a really powerful tool which should be used suitably. Policy execution should be done carefully without rigidness utilizing bottom up attacks. Evaluation is necessary in order to mensurate the success of the plan and larn more for future policy executions. Reducing HIV/AIDS prevalence amongst in-school young person goes a long manner in cut downing prevalence in the general population and promises a healthier brighter hereafter, free from HIV/AIDS.

Friday, August 30, 2019

History of Advertising

TRACE THE EVOLUTION AND GROWTH OF INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC RELATION WORLWIDE. FOCUS ON ITS OPERATION IN NIGERIA, EVALUATING ITS LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE IMPACT OF ITS PRACTISE ON CORPORATE SUCCESS. The History of Advertising Introduction â€Å"Advertising, a form of commercial mass communication designed to promote the sale of a product or service, or a message on behalf of an institution, organization, or candidate for political office. † In a primitive form, advertising has been around almost as long as Homo sapiens in a recognizably modern form. It has been around for almost 2500 years. Despite its venerable age it is still sprightly growing. Moreover there are good reasons to believe that its usefulness to consumer and therefore to economics, will keep on growing for another century or two at the very least. Even the dumbest futurologists would not try to predict further ahead than that, so I rest my case in advertising being a far larger and more important global industry in AD 2099 than in AD 1999 Advertising can be looked at from various perspectives. As the quote above states, its purpose is to increase the number of articles or products sold. These are not only things we can buy in different stores, for example clothing or supplies for our daily life, but also such simple things as a message placed by an institution or organization asking for attention of the public to raise money or to make them aware of a problem, such as anti-smoking ads. Even political parties use advertisements and commercials to state the opinion of their candidate. I think we have all experienced that quite extensively during the presidential campaign in the United States. Advertising became big business in the 20th  century, offering many different jobs in advertising agencies and the marketing section. The use of the media, like newspapers, television, direct mail, radio, magazines, outdoor signs and of course the Internet made this growth possible. It is a form of transporting information to the consumer, but which does not only have positive sides. There are many critical aspect about it, like persuading people to doing unhealthy things, like smoking, or producing special stereotypes everybody tries to follow. Nevertheless, advertising has become international, since producers and companies try to sell their products on a globalized market in almost every corner of the world. It is therefore not surprising to see a big sign for Coca Cola in third world countries. 19th and 20th Century Advertising In the 19th century new technologies were developed and brand-new methods invented. As a result a surplus of production was formed. Warehouses of many factories were overflowing. In this way it was necessary to create useful advertisements, which would cover all large spaces, utilizing a large variety of mass media sources. The first advertising agent who created such a network was Volney Palmer. In 1841 he proclaimed himself as an advertising agent in Philadelphia and then created similar offices in Boston and New York. About 20% of the commission for media brokers was paid to the publishers. Texts of ads were offered by the head of the company or its representative. People who wanted to put their ads in the newspaper paid him a commission. Such activities became very popular during the second part of 19th  century in all European countries. Significant advances in advertising development were made by American brokers. In the early 1850’s, John Wanamaker caused a revolution in the retail trade. He created a price lists for a variety of goods and returned the money if the commodity was not of the promised quality. As a result, he gained a lot of profit by using this strategy and he then opened a network of consumer goods shops. The reason of such great success was professional advertising. In 1880 businessmen employed the best creator of advertising texts – D. E. Powers. Powers started to develop advertisements using brand-new information. This strategy had become very popular in American trade circles and by the 20th century advertising had become a form of science. â€Å"In the 1880s a new era of advertising began: New methods of manufacturing led to greatly increased output and decreased the costs for the producers of consumer goods. The products now could be packaged at the plant. Moreover the telegraph network was in place and the continent has been crisscrossed by a network of railroads†¦. † All these were assumptions that now allowed nation-wide distribution and nation-wide advertising. This state supported the growth of advertising agencies and dictated their activities. During 19th  century the majority of advertisements were published in the newspapers and advertising leaflets. Although newspapers were a prerogative of well-off class of community but the situation began to change in the early 1860’s when people got the opportunity of receiving publications by post. First magazine advertisements appeared in  The Southern Messenger. For a few years the editor of this magazine was Edgar Po. Many of the magazines that began to publish advertisements as the separate charter in the 19th  century have continued doing it nowadays. Such editions are  Cosmopolitan, Ladies’ Home Journal, Readers Digest  and some others. Despite of the popular brands of newspapers the majority of information in the advertisements was unreliable and apocryphal. Moreover advertisements sometimes were immoral and absurd. For example in the countryside of one American city advertisement was placed in the monument of a non-existent person and it stated: â€Å"This person killed himself with the handgun with Colt system†. Then â€Å"publishers† enumerated the value of this handgun. As the result of such inhuman actions people stopped trusting advertisements and began to consider advertising as something negative. The first radio-advertisement was broadcast in 1922 in New York on the WEAF radio station. Thus in the 1920s advertisers and their agents had come to realize radio's possibilities. With its drama and immediacy, radio could convey their message directly to the consumer who would not need to purchase a publication or even need to be literate. In the 1950s television was introduced and quickly developed into THE advertising-media. In the 1950’s common income from the advertising industry rose to $ 10 billion a year. In 1980’s this index was $ 100 billion! Now advertisers could demonstrate the use of their products and present well-known figures to praise it. They could also affect emotions through television. THE HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATION EARLY DEVELOPMENT. Although the concept of public relations as systematic social activity and the term itself, were not recognized until the first decades of the twentieth century, its more elementary functions of publicity, persuasion , and press agentry are many children old. Archaeologists have discovered evidence of political communication, such as painted messages. , in ruins of ancient civilizations, just as thousands of communicators publicize today’s Olympic Games ,so did their predecessors promote the first contexts in Greece. Caesar’s commentaries, glorifying the emperor, and the four gospels of the New Testament represented other forms of publicity and persuasion. As Peter G. Osgood, president of the public relations firm, remarked, â€Å"St john the Baptist himself did superb Advance work of P. R for Jesus of Nazareth. 19TH AND 20TH PUBLIC RELATIONS As the wave of industrialization, mechanization and urbanization swept the nation after civil war, the public became concerned about many aspects of big business, including concentrations of wealth and control. In 1888 the mutual Life Insurance company sought to improve its image by employing newspaperman Charles J . Smith to write press releases. A year later Westinghouse corporation created what is said to be the first in-house publicity department. In 1897 the term public relations was used ,perharps for the first time, by the Association of American Railroads. Twentieth –Century Developments. The first publicity firm, known as the publicity bureau, was established in Boston in 1900, with Harvard University as one of its clients. Within the decade a number of other such bureaus were established. Among them was the office oof Ivy Ledbetter Lee and George Parker. Ivy lee belief that much of the public’s antipathy toward business at that time-an antipathy exploite by the muckrakers (publications and writers who exposed corruption and exploitation) – resulted from the fact that most businesses operated in secrecy and most business people would not discuss their policies in operations with the public. Ivy lee used his PR techniques to restore peace and good image to the U. S coalindustry which was experiencing tumoil as aresult of shattering strikes. Lee continued to develop such techniques which werelater applied in various situations. Another dimension was added to public relations concept during world war 1, when the committee on public information was established by the federal government under George Creel,a former newspaper reporter. The committee conducted a massive and successful publicity campaign to mobilize the American public behind the war effort. The values of such massive communications efforts were impressed upon those who worked with Creel, and some of them became pioneers in the establishment of public relations firm designes to conduct similar campaigns for private clients. They included Edward L. Bernays , who in 1923 coined the term public relations counsel to describe a function that was to become the core of public relations, and Carl Byoir, whose firm became highly successful. After world war II public relations developed rapidly,in business and industry at first and later in nonprofit institutions. The number of public relation workers soared from only 19,000 in 1950 to 250,000 in 1990. In Nigeria the need for public administration arose after second world war. At that time there was need for effective public information as a result of growing unpopularity of the then colonial government. In the private sector, UAC established thr first PR department in 1949 under Charles Newman to explain the company’s work and policies to the people. EVALUATING THE OPERATIONS AND LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT OF ADVERTISING IN NIGERIA Few studies have examined the cultural reflections and the role of advertising in the national development of Nigerian or other African countries. This study, which explored the meaning of development, the debate on the role of culture and mass media on social modernization, African political economy as well as Nigerian history, politics, economic and ommunication development efforts, serves as an attempt to bridge that gulf. This study focused on the role of advertising in the process of social mobilization and modernization in Nigeria by examining the cultural reflections, the nature and characteristics of the messages, and the values and symbols conveyed in Nigerian mass media advertisements. The findings demonstrated the difficulty of ascertaining th e role of the mass media including advertising on a nation’s social, economic and national development and modernization. However, some of the conclusions drawn from the exploration could be summarized as follows: (1) The Nigerian government as well as native-owned enterprises and public corporations do not use advertising adequately to promote their goods and services; (2) Nigerian advertisers used both Western or traditional African cultural values, but neither of them dominated the other; (3) Developmental themes were found in Nigerian mass media advertisements, but they tended to concentrate on individual instead of group goals as traditional African value system dictates; (4) The nature and target(s) of advertisements in Nigerian mass media demonstrated that the Nigerian economy is distorted and underdeveloped; (5) The underdeveloped nature is clearly demonstrated because the majority of consumer products and services advertised in Nigeria were of foreign origin and mostly non-essential; (6) The products advertised often targeted the elites because the Nigerian masses could not afford them; (7) Fin ancial advertisements were the most dominant products and services of Nigerian origin because they promoted more products and services that the average Nigerian could afford. This study demonstrated that advertising holds both promises and problems for Nigerian economic and social development. Its promises deal with its ability to relay useful information on social issues and on the availability of goods and services to the masses. On the other hand, the problems deal with its ability to promote unfair competition, consumerism, lack of interest in social matters, and immoral attitudes, which could distort the economy or undermine traditional values and national economy. However, advertising should be encouraged, not discouraged. It could be monitored by practitioners and government officials in order to make the medium an effective vehicle for promoting goods and services as well as values that would assist the socioe conomic development of Nigeria. Advertising remains an important vehicle for the various tiers of Nigerian government to use for promoting their services and for explaining national issues in order to promote national integration and the social welfare of the masses. The use of advertising to promote socioeconomic development could be achieved by adopting â€Å"developmental advertising. The idea calls for the incorporation of relevant cultural values and developmental themes in product and servi ce advertisements by the private and public sectors. The goal is to help public corporations and businesses in marketing their products and services, thus enabling Nigeria’s economic and social growth. It could assist Nigerians to adopt useful modernization habits. THE IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING ON A CORPORATE BODY The advertising business has become such an important factor in the economy of many countries, especially in Nigeria, that it also changes the economy itself, society, culture, and the political system. The stimulation for the demand of products and services helps the  economy  grow stronger and stronger. New inventions become known much faster and can establish their spot in the sales figures of the economy. If there are more people buying these products the overall costs will drop and the product will become cheaper for the customer which raises his willingness to buy even more. On the other hand advertisements are very expensive and some economists believe that these costs are put on top of the actual price paid by the customer. Advertising has a serious impact on the  culture  of a country. The globalized economy uses the same commercials in a lot of different countries, which leads to a break down in the differences of these societies. Children will grow up not knowing how their culture has been before in their country. It can also lead to a lot of discussion about moral values if we just think about the very controversial ads. Critics argue that advertising can also have a huge influence on  society. It tells the consumers that only purchasing products makes you happy and therefore people compare each other on their belongings. Women also compare themselves with the beautiful and very skinny models they see on commercials and ads. This sometimes results in eating disorders and a low self-esteem of women who don’t look like these models. Another bad effect is, that minority groups, especially in the United States are portrait in a subordinate position, which settles in the minds of people. Commercials are also an important part of the income of a TV station which leads to the suspicion that a news channel might not report on an incident about a company they depend on. A lot of TV shows are also based on these commercials, and if the ratings aren’t good enough the show will be stopped. Only those shows which attract a lot of viewers will be shown, which is not very differentiated and put minorities like older people at a disadvantage. Finally advertising can also have an impact in  politics. Millions are spent on advertisements and TV commercials in any elections taking place in the country. It gives the opponents the chance to respond to charges very quickly reaching a few million viewers. But since this is very expensive only very rich people have to chance to run for a political position or at least depend on the donation of wealthier people who could have a huge impact on democracy this way. The political issues talked about in an election are also very much simplified because the spots are only about 30 seconds long, and you can’t really discuss a lot in such a short period of time. ————————————————- The Challenge of Public Relations and Good Governance in Nigeria The role of the Nigeria Institute of Public Relations in enhancing communication between Governments, organisations and the public cannot be over emphasized. By ensuring free flow of communication, public relations practitioners help to reduce conflict and misunderstandings in the society. As you are all aware, good governance, accountability and transparency are important ingredients of democracy. In other words, the objective of good governance, as being implemented by this Administration, is to ensure the provision of better quality of life for all Nigerians. it is my opinion that public relations practitioners have the responsibility to understand public perceptions and truthfully communicate these to government. They should endeavor to provide free flow of information on government policies and actions to the general public for the good of all. In this highly technological information age, the Public Relations professional needs to have a high sense of intellectual judgement, creativity, confidence and above all courage. I dare to say therefore that given the relevance of your profession, which is all about helping us to manage our relations with all our publics, a lot is expected of you. As you are all aware, we are now dealing with more informed and discerning publics. They are hungry for knowledge and truth and the success of any government in marketing its policies and achievements – external and internal – will depend on the level of professionalism, which you as Public Relations practitioners provide. I urge you therefore to tell the Nigerian story from our own perspective at all times. In Nigeria, Public Relations has become a strategic management function. Most Nigerian organizations either have full public relations department or retain the services of PR consultants. In corporate bodies, PR is now acknowledged as a major tool in achieving social, economic and political goals and objectives of an organization. Public Relations has had numerous impact in an organization through publicizing an organizations activities and maintaining cordial relationship with the media (information and communication). Researching on corporate image, public motivation issues and trends. Public Relation has helped extensively in corporate identity management of an organization.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Analysing The Effects Of Ddt Environmental Sciences Essay

Analysing The Effects Of Ddt Environmental Sciences Essay DDT is a white, solid, crystalline powder with no taste or odor. DDT (C14H9C15) is derived from reaction between chloral and chlorobenzene in presence of fumes of sulfuric acid. DDT is insoluble in water and it is soluble in organic solvents such as, fats and oils. DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is an organochlorine pesticide widely used to control mosquito and insects that carry diseases like malaria, typhus, and other harmful diseases and pest in agriculture (Martin, 2008; Raghavendra et al., 2010). DDT was banned in the U.S. in 1972 because it was identified to cause damage in birds and other wildlife, but it is still used in some developing countries (Bhuiyan et al., 2008). It is still present in environment due to current use in other countries. DDT and its breakdown products (DDE and DDD) can easily break down by sunlight, but they are very hard to dissolve in soil. DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) and DDD (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane) are two major metabolites and breakdown products of DDT. DDD was also known as pesticide, but it was banned whereas DDE does not have any commercial use (Eskenazi et al., 2009). DDT was first synthesized in 1874 by Othmar Zeidler. In 1940, DDT was first used to treat Dutch elm disease. DDT was majorly used in World War II to protect troop and civilians from diseases. In 1939, Paul Mueller discovered DDT as insecticide and he won the Nobel Prize in 1948 for it. After this, people started using DDT as pesticide for their home, agriculture purpose and in gardens (Eskenazi et al., 2008). However, DDT started to cause diseases during this time and this increases public concern to Rachel Carsonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Silent Spring. Rachel Carsonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Silent Spring was published in 1962, which contains environmental impacts of DDT in the US (ATSDR, 2002; Eskenazi et al., 2008; Martin, 2008). DDT is strongly absorbed by soil and remains there for long period of time (Bhuiyan et al., 2008). They released f rom soil by various types of reactions such as, runoff, photolysis, aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation and volatilization (van den Berg, 2009). In surface water, DDT will bind to particles that are present in the water and sediments. DDT is taken up by small organisms and fish from the water and then bioaccumulate in organisms to higher trophic levels. DDT deposited into the adipose tissues and fats in organisms. DDT shows bioaccumulation and biomagnification as it has lypophilic property (Bhuiyan et al., 2008). In 1950s, first evidence of DDT toxicity in bald eagles, robins, osprey, pelicans, peregrine falcon, and fish-eating mammals was observed (Xiao et al., 2008; DDT: An Introduction, 1996; Martin, 2008). Objectives This paper has five objectives: (1) To discuss the sources and main causes of DDT; (2) To discuss its mechanism of action as insecticide or pesticide; (3) To discuss the health problems and toxicological effects associated with DDT; (4) To discuss the environmental impacts of DDT; (5) To discuss control measures and various methods of dealing with DDT sources and problems. DDT in the Environment DDT is not soluble in water but it can form strong bonding with soil particles. DDT is still present in environment in soils that were exposed to DDT during earlier time. DDT is a volatile so it can be transported and evaporated as a gas. DDT is not commonly found in groundwater because it is less soluble in water and it will more likely to bound with soil particles rather than water molecule (ATSDR, 2002; Walker, M., Powell, P., 2003; van den Berg, 2009).

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Stock trading experience Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Stock trading experience - Essay Example Working in stock market is very complex job;it does not only require money but also high skills and techniques along with the fact that the player must be lucky also.The following essay discusses the experience of stock trading. This activity helps in gaining huge experience about the market fluctuations and also keeps the instinct on the line. The following essay discusses the experience of stock trading. Stock Trading Experience Just few weeks ago, I decided to enter into the stock market and become the professional trader. The motivation and interest was developed to work in the stock market, while I was in my school life because in my school life I was very good at mathematics and statistics and loved to play with numbers. One of the biggest advantages and opportunities were my teachers who supported me a lot to polish my skills and techniques. At one point of time, I was strongly suggested by my statistics teacher to take the advanced computer classes and statistics and mathemat ics tuitions. The advanced lessons and classes also helped to be positive at all times towards trading in the stock market and when I was in college, I finally decided to start trading (Nassar, 1999). In the initial stages and to gain the professional experience, I spent some time with the professionals who were already in the stock market.... tical skills were better than others of same ages, but when it comes to the trading of stock, I found out that my skills and expertise were very restrictive to the theoretical aspects. And in the professional life, there are many big fishes that have more knowledge, experience, expertise and skills than me. But I tried my best to understand all the concepts, techniques, approaches and expertise to ensure that in the future these elements will help me to become the successful stock trader and generate the positive outcomes and results. After spending six months as a trainee stock trader, I then decided to move on and become the individual in the stock trading market. I went to my bank and visited an assistant to lend ?100,000. After few days, the requested amount was lent to me by my bank. After couple of days, doing my homework and prepare the entire plan, I approached the stock market to make efficient investments. But sooner I realized that the situation in the stock market is not as I was initially thinking and expecting. Before deciding and availing the investment opportunity, there were many aspects that were found to be very critical and difficult. But after long considerations and detailed homework, I took a step and made an investment of ?75,000 and bought the shares of the company whose stock prices were constantly going up. Sooner I bought the shares, the very next day, the prices of the stocks starting decreasing. As I entered into the market as a regular investor therefore I did not had the time to wait for the prices to go up again. But I waited for 3 days and found out that the prices were constantly going down because the current financial position of the company was not strong. On the day 4th I had no other option but to sell the stock at lower prices

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

A sound knowledge of social policy is essential for effective social Essay

A sound knowledge of social policy is essential for effective social work practice - Essay Example Implementing social policy consists of using the rules and regulations of governments to directly impact the welfare of citizens by providing them with income or services such as social insurance, public assistance, healthcare, welfare services and adequate housing (Marshall, 1965). This paper proposes to evaluate the importance of social policy for effective social work practice. The relationship between social policy and social work, the influences of political processes, the application of social policy and theory to a range of current social issues and problems especially related to social inclusion and welfare rights will be identified. The concept of the government taking responsibility for the citizens’ problems has a long history, though the term welfare state has come into use only since 1941. In Britain in 1942, William Beveridge published Social Insurance and Allied Services commonly known as the Beveridge Report. This seminal document was crucial in turning Great Britain into a welfare state (Macarov, 1995). Labour elected in July 1945 established a new welfare system by implementing the main proposals of William Beveridge’s path-breaking report. Labour replaced the multitude of schemes for the unemployed, the old and the sick with a single unified scheme which essentially remains to this day. Other than for pensions, the Act was less generous than what had been advocated by Beveridge. The low levels of benefit caused many people to rely on National Assistance â€Å"because retirement, unemployment and insurance benefits were pitched too low and did not provide separately for housing costs† (Brivati & Bale, 1997). The new National Health Service (NHS) which gave the medical profession representation and control over spending resulted in spiralling costs in the late 1940s. Comparatively, education policy as the 1944

Monday, August 26, 2019

A marketing plan to regenerate the area around Aberdeen Beach Essay

A marketing plan to regenerate the area around Aberdeen Beach - Essay Example Internal marketing audit, external marketing audit, competitor analysis as well as marketing review of the beach has been done in order to make the area attractive for the locals as well as visitors. Mission Statement The purpose of the tourist beach will be to provide an everlasting experience for the visitors of the beach by exposing them with clean and calm environment, latest adventure sports and activities, leisure areas, top class restaurants and nice places to hangout. The beach will be serving all demographic categories starting from kids, teenagers, youngsters as well as adults, professionals, middle aged and senior citizens. There will not be any gender bias and equal opportunities will be provided to men and women in terms of activities and events (Nimwegen, et al., 2008). The beach will be established keeping in mind the environment and local surroundings. The beach will also use latest technologies to keep the pollution and wastages at bay and will make sure that least a mount of wastes are dispersed in the surroundings (Fuchs and Diamantopoulos, 2010). Corporate objective The major corporate objectives of the beach authorities are as follows; 1. Tighten the security of the beach and its surrounding areas so that the trust of visitors and tourists on the beach safety is re-established. 2. Re-position the beach and its surrounding areas as a favourite destination for serene and pollution free holiday. 3. Increasing profitability and return on investment of the marketing and advertising strategies by ensuring proper monitoring and strategic implementation. 4. The corporate vision for the beach will be to provide their customers with the best holiday destination experience from beginning to end, with attractive environmental sites and engaging activities. Internal marketing audit Current situation At present, Aberdeen beach is going through a difficult situation. There has been a decline in number of visitors, especially the locals. Off late, the beach authorities have been criticised for growing unhealthy environment. The area surrounding the beach is not cleaned properly, leading to a garbage land. This has accelerated the growth of mosquitoes and other flies in the corners of the beach. Also, people have started complaining about the pungent smells because of the growing wastes. Another blow to the safety of the beach was done when a dead body was found inside the beach complex. The flow of visitors reduced drastically after the incident. Usage and facilities Currently, the beach is primarily used for walking, surfing and windsurfing. The beach is actually an array of many attached beaches, each having specific qualities and attractions. Thus, while few beaches are mostly used for walking and sigh-seeing, others famous for their high tides and surfing. The beach also has a popular amusement area. Apart from this, the beach is also surrounded by restaurants, cinemas, condones and parks. The Aberdeen beach is actually a part of the Queens Link which is famous for various other attractions such as amusement park, cinemas, restaurants, shopping centres and more. External analysis In order to do a macro and micro environmental analysis a PESTLE analysis of the Scotland tourism is done here. Political Scotland falls in the category of developed economies. Political situation is stable in Scotland. The major

Brown vs board of Education Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Brown vs board of Education - Research Paper Example As such, the paper seeks to critically discuss the impact of racial segregation especially on students in public schools. The case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954, 1955) marked a major victory for blacks in the US who were major victims of racial segregation in schools. Though the Supreme Court judges in this particular case were deeply divided over the case, they realized that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. in delivering the judgement in this case, they stated that, "We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. . ." (USCourts, n.d). Indeed, this judgement in the case of Brown v. Board of Education (1954, 1955) is plausible since it is a victory to those people who are segregated on the basis of their race. Racial segregation has negative impacts especially on the victims particularly the people belonging to an â€Å"inferior race.† Racial segregation is dehumanising since the segregated groups are relegated to lower levels of society and they are often treated as inferior. Under law, this practice should not be permitted since it impacts negatively on other people who may be deprived the opportunity to live happier lives through their hard work. People who are looked down upon often view themselves as inferior and they are not capable of doing anything meaningful that can improve their welfare. They also end up failing to get opportunities to pursue courses and careers that can improve their welfare. The aspect of racial segregation is inhumane since it is believed that all people are created equal by God. According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), human beings are born with inalienable rights and these should not be violated by other people. Article 7 of the UDHR (1948) states that, â€Å"All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Dissertation outline(please help me think of a title related to CSR Outline

Dissertation (please help me think of a title related to CSR with extractive industries) - Outline Example companies that are engaged in the business process of extracting materials, minerals and metals from the surface of the earth for further processing and commercial use. It has been observed under the review of literature that the extraction companies are mostly listed in the Canada and there has been an increase in the investments of these companies in both the domestic as well as the overseas markets. In recent years, the multination investment in the extraction industries like oil and gas, mining, etc. have increased at an average rate in the US and UK. On the other hand, the multinational investments in the countries of Asia and Africa as well as the developing economies have increased multiple folds. While this represe4nts a win-win situation for the multinational investors in the extraction sector and the economies that are rich in the mineral and resources as their primary industrial sector, there is a gap in the literature which suggests that the multinational companies invest ing in the extraction industries have often faced complex situation and challenges in running their business in the extraction sector (Abdel-Fatau, 2002, p.16). The review of literature suggests the Canadian financial market are the largest sources of equity capital for the mining and exploration industry and the expenditure of the Canadian based extraction industry accounts for almost 43% of the total expenditures by the companies in the extraction industry all over the globe. However, with the increasing performance of the extractive industries, the multinational investments have started flow into the developing countries. Although the extraction industries have been playing a major role in stimulating the growth of the host countries, there are several social and environmental challenges faced in their course of operations. It has been found that the extraction industries have performed the role of CSR on an increasing trend while operating in the overseas markets. In order to

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Global Markting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Global Markting - Essay Example Franchises have sprung up to become multi-billion dollar business empires like the McDonalds franchise. Fast foods are composed local readily available foodstuff that is easy and ready to eat with minimal preparation and/or cooking. The fast food business is being introduced into regions of the world where it would not have been economically sound to do so a few years back. This is because the market for fast foods was not there, and it was undeveloped o support such endeavours. The expansion started in the Asian markets in countries like India, Singapore and Vietnam to mention just a few. Africa is now being viewed as the next frontier in almost all fronts of business from mining to technological advances, innovation and inventions. Kenya is a leading country in Africa in terms of political, economic and environmental stability that acts as a conducive environment for business start-ups and growth. Kenya is regarded as a leader in many aspects especially when it comes to considering it a location to set up a business. This is because the country acts as a gateway into the wider Eastern African region because of its port at the coast with the Indian Ocean and well-developed road network. Infrastructure is the key to business development in any part of the world because it determines the success or failure of a business. Infrastructure should be considered when setting up a business, and includes a myriad of factors that are important to a business. It is composed of both tangible attributes like roads, buildings and intangible factors like skilled labour and technological expertise. Kenya is a country that is considered an oasis of stability and peace in a region where the neighbouring countries are ravaged by various calamities and disasters. Political stability is essential for the success of any business and Kenya provides this strategically. This is terms of infrastructure and political stability that provides a calm environment for businesses to proper and break even. The country’s economy is largely based on agriculture, but there emerging opportunities for other sectors of the economy to be based on like mining. These new opportunities have placed Kenya on the path of entering into the bracket of emerging world economies like Brazil and Far East countries. Politically, Kenya is more stable than its neighbours, which can be attributed to its half a century of stable political leadership since its independence from its colonial masters the British. This has been further enhanced by the country’s adoption of a new constitution, which has placed the country among the best leaders in terms of the best bill of human rights and organs for protecting them in the constitution. Political leadership determines a country’s economic policies and they affect both external and internal business environment. Kenya’s business environment can be considered as one that is need of external or foreign investment, which expec ted to help the country exploit its newfound resources. Foreign investments are essential for a country’s development because it brings in the much-needed expertise and experience in various sectors of the economy. Political goodwill is essential in encouraging direct foreign investment in country because it is responsible for instituting and maintaining conducive economic policies. Kenya offers these attributes at a time when the region and Africa as a whole is in the public limelight as being positioned as the next big thing in

Friday, August 23, 2019

EMs education program for a community based on EMS related issues Essay

EMs education program for a community based on EMS related issues within the community - Essay Example Such areas are majorly faced by the EMS problem of disease outbreak. These areas are constantly faced with malaria outbreak thus high mortality rate of both children and adults. Accessing health facilities is a problem to such people because of the following reasons. Poverty level, poor transport, poor communication. Unless health facilities and governments come up with long lasting strategies to avert the situation, then the nationals in such areas continue to suffer more and more. The community education program that can be employed to avert the above situation of malaria epidemic is first to develop, collect and disseminate the necessary information on the importance of good health to individuals and the importance of living in clean environment. In this case, professionals trained in the field of medicine should be given the first priority to undertake the exercise. The training programs should also be made affordable and accessible so as to achieve the entire goal. There are some established communities agencies which I can well involve myself in and provide the program. These agencies are either private or public but with a common goal of providing quick response to any medical care in a certain community. These agencies include NHTSA. This agency has been leading for the past forty years in the provision of a system approach to emergency medical services in various communities. Volunteers and other trained medical personnel have teamed up in the past to provide much assistance to these communities. NEMSIS (National Emergency Medical Services Information System) is another cooperative agency in the same ( Brenna, pg. 60). Research shows that there few developed programs designed to provide emergency medical services. This is due to some challenges faced such as lack of adequate trained personnel to conduct such services, slow response to cases of emergency in rural

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Classical Era Essay Example for Free

Classical Era Essay The introduction level of classical civilization in the book World civilizations: The Global experience the author mainly emphasizes on people-society interactions as the main characteristics distinguishing this era. Most of the information discussed by the author on this chapter encompasses cultural, social, economic and political aspects of history (Stearns, 1999). The author considers cultural and social aspects the key factors that contributed to classical civilization. According to Stearns the classical world civilization era was mainly characterized by the integration of regions consisting of people from diverse groups. Thus according to the author classical civilization was a result of political cultural systems overarching (Stearns, 1999). In describing the world civilization during the classical era the author in addition explores historical issues such as intellectual issues and class. From the authors perspectives human agency and inequality during this era played a key role in classical civilization. In this paper other than identifying the characteristics discussed by Stearns that he considers the distinguishing characteristics, I will also develop a personal stand on whether I agree or disagree with his characterization. The author analyses world civilization during the classical era using themes from great civilization of India, the Mediterranean and China regions. According to the author some of the characteristics that can be associated with world civilization during this era include decline of religious power in politics, decline and fall of classical empires, the developed of new world’s religions and increased global connections (Stearns, 1999). This according to the author resulted to emergence of a new phase of world’s history. Expansion and integration the main themes that are associated to classical civilization were as a result of territorial expansion. In addition, according to the author during this period there were some government’s efforts to integrate the people of different regions which resulted to the formation of new territories (Stearns, 1999). In his discussions on Classical civilization Stearns (1999), argues that integration which later contributed to the global civilization during this period was as a result of two factors; promotion of social unity and development of new strategies for governing the new territories. While classical era is mainly considered to have had a huge impact in the Mediterranean, China and India regions, there were also other minor developments in other regions of the world which shared similar characteristics during the classical era. In Northern Europe as a result of need to increase food security new territories were developed which extended to Northern Asia (Stearns, 1999). Thus the theme of integration was evident in other regions as well. In some regions poor governance and need for liberation according to the author promoted integration with states that were already undergoing civilization. The author uses Japan as an example that in order to improve their political structure they had to develop contacts with China resulting to integration. The author uses other examples to show that world civilization shared a common historical course which during the classical period was as a result of social cohesion and integration. According to the author during classical era nomads and other primate societies were only agents of contacts (Stearns, 1999). The author considers these social groups to have slowed the civilization process during this period especially because they posed threat to trade, religion, technology advancement and other factors were considered to promote integration. According to the author in order for the societies he considered to have played role in classical civilization to succeed, they had to battle with nomad and other societies he considers to have created hostile environment for civilization. His argument however contradicts those of other authors who consider these social groups to have promoted classical civilization process mainly by helping to promote trade. While some of there practices inhibited free integration the social groups mainly promoted political integration. In addition, these social groups contributed in the development of cultural characteristics which is considered part of classical civilization heritage in most parts of the world. These cultural characteristics are still part of modern culture several decades after the end of classical period. Other characteristics that the author considers to represent the classical era include sexual value characteristics (Stearns, 1999). Some of civilization characteristics such as sexual beauty and behaviors such as homosexuality have their origin during the classical era. Stearns argues that these civilization characteristics developed as need for social expansion and integration. For instance, as a result of integration new rules were developed on fidelity mainly to lower the dangers of excess sexual exposure. However, the regulation resulted to the development of Confucianism on sexual matters especially toward homosexuality. In addition, as a result of civilization sexuality topics became open discussion a civilization characteristic that is evident up to date. Despite the fact that the distinguishing characteristics that the author uses to describe civilization in classical period are relevant, I do not agree that these were the only characteristics that could be used to describe this era. In his writing the author has used a restrictive perspective which is only able to cover certain societies that were deemed as civilized during this period. His mode of argument limits the possibility of one being able to compare these characteristics using any other society other than the ones he has analyzed-China, India and societies in the Mediterranean region (Lockard, 1995). Thus these characteristics of this era raise more questions on whether the author already had his own perspective of the kind human nature which existed during this period and thus used it to develop these characteristics. The author tends to overlook differences that are attributed to classical civilization such as a result of governance traditions, religion, artistic structure and even everyday life. Arguing that classical civilization was mainly as a result of similarity in the global perspective on governance, religion and technology advancement is incorrect. The author should have provided a different perspective of describing the characteristics that can be used to describe this period especially aspects contributed by societies outside the Eurocentric conception of classical civilization. There are social identities outside the ones described above which also contributed greatly in the classical civilization process. For instance, the nomads played an important role in the development of trade networks which later promoted the civilization integration process. The author mainly uses some of the factors that resulted to society integration thus according to him integration to only depicted a stage of primitiveness in some societies. Rather than viewing some forms of integration such as hunting, gathering and nomads which played a key role during this era’s civilization as means of production he describes it to have marginalized the civilization process during this are. I don’t to agree with his argument because based on other authors production during this historical time had a big impact in the process of civilization. Unlike the author who seemed to marginalize some forms of production such as hunting, nomadism which he considers to have interfered with other aspects that contributed to civilization such as political and economy, I believe these aspects had a big role to play especially in civilization in the production era (Lockard, 1995). The characteristics that author used to describe classical civilization can only be considered to be based on racial aspects. His mode of describing civilization during the classical era tends to overlook contemporary social identities which contributed to classical civilization. The author in order to be able to integrate the two main characteristic for this period into all social groupings should have used the aspect that describes how various groups contributed to civilization during this period as a result of integration and need of expansion. The aspect of having fixed aspects on which social identities resulted to civilization during this era lowers the strength and the positive impact interaction of various societies had in the civilization process. However, most authors argue that the nomads had a key role to play in classical civilization mainly because they catalyzed the invention of new military tactics and materials associated with this era such as the Gunpowder which was developed in China to counter nomad’s threat. The author considered sexuality as another unique characteristic that was used to characterize this era. According to Stearns (1999) during the classical era gender integration played a key role in promoting civilization. Most of the integration by different societies resulted due to intermarriage especially during developed of trading systems. It is during this period that religious institutions such as the Indian system started spreading to other parts of the continent. As a result, most religions started striving to develop a signature identity that would divine them. These religious institutional characteristics are also considered to distinguish the civilization process during the classical era (Lockard, 1995). The author associates some of the society’s characteristics associated with this era to have resulted from integration of sexual values by various social groups. As a result they were a new approach on gender that was established during classical civilization. Some of these approaches which the author considers to characterize civilization during this era include development of an artistic sexual beauty expression, and development of certain sexual behaviors such as homosexuality. Conclusion During the classical era the author of World civilization: Global experience describes integration and expansions as the main distinguishing characteristics for this period. According to the author the need to improve the political structure, economy, technology and even every day life in India, China and the Mediterranean region greatly impacted the civilization process. The author considers some of the social aspects such as development of new sexuality behaviors that are associated with this era to have originated from the actions of people in these regions. Despite the fact I agree with the author on the distinguishing characteristics of this era, I disagree with his arguments mainly because he tends to overlook other social identities such as nomads who played an equal important role in promoting classical civilization especially by acting as the agents of promoting social integration. In addition, their every day activities contributed in the expansion of the social structure resulting in formation of new territories (Lockard, 1995). The author should have also included how some of the contributions by these groups which he considers primitive social identities resulted to classical civilizations. Including other social identities in his discussion would have erased the notion that he had already developed a particular concept about human nature during this period. In addition, the author should have described in details the classical empires collapse which can be considered another characteristic for classical era. References Lockard, C. (1995). Integrating Southeast Asia into a framework of world History: The period before 1500. Vol. 29. Society of History education press. Stearns, P. N. (1999). World Civilizations: The Global Experience Vol. 1. MA: Addison Wesley Longman press.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Ethnic Diversity Essay Example for Free

Ethnic Diversity Essay Answer each question in 50 to 150 words. Provide citations for all the sources you use. 1. What is diversity? Why is diversity valued? Diversity is the combination of different races of people, religions, and culture. Diversity is important to constantly grow and learn new ideas that will help our society become a better environment to live in. Diversity is value because it allows us to learn different things that may help up us in life, that our own culture does teach, or provide. 2. What is ethnocentrism? In what ways can ethnocentrism be detrimental to a society? Ethnocentrism is a term that is used to describe the tendency that someone will believe his or her own customs and traditions are better than anyone else’s. It is determined that no culture is perfect, and closing society from the great custom of other cultures does not allow one a chance to solve all problems, and learn what others know that we are custom to disbelieve in. 3. Define emigration and immigration. Emigration is a person leaving a country, and Immigration is a person entering a country. E in Emigration can mean exit, and I in immigration can mean in. Many get these to word mixed up, mainly in ones English or History class as a student. For example the United States are prompt with immigrants with an I, and Mexico are accounted for emigrants with an E. 4. What are some of the ways groups of people are identified? Some ways groups of people are identified are by race or creed, gender, religion, raised by one or both parents, or raised outside of their original family. In addition, American cultural group people by age, until you reach 18, one is considered an adolescent, and when one reaches 21, they are considered an adult. 5. Why do people label and group other people? People label and group other people as a barrier to not be taken by surprise. If a certain Copyright  © 2012 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Diversity Worksheet ETH/125 Version 8 2 person done something wrong, and we see more people like that person doing the same, we now label that entire race of people to be the same. The labeling part works as a defense mechanism to not allow someone that we think is bad or good, take advantage of us or we lock out someone we think can be a good friend. 6. Define culture. Is culture limited to racial and ethnic backgrounds? Explain. Culture is the customs of a group of people, by race, religion, beliefs, and tradition. Culture is not limited to racial and ethnic backgrounds. Because there are many different races that have the same religious culture and traditions. For example Indians, Blacks, Iranians, and I am sure there are others that believe in the Islamic religion, and have the same beliefs and follow the same religion traditions. Copyright  © 2012 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Victimization, Deterrence and Social Disorganization

Victimization, Deterrence and Social Disorganization The life course theory is one of the developmental theories that is interesting. The life course theory incorporates the idea from the social learning theory that crime is a learned behavior (Siegel, 2011). This occurs when the individual experiences a transition during their life course. According to the life course theory we start behaviors at a very young age that can have a significant impact on our adult life. One of the points brought up in the life course theory is about transitions that we go through as we grow up such as finishing school, getting a job, getting married and having kids (Siegel, 2011). These transitions are what make the life course theory a developmental theory because these transitions are what can make or break your life. If a person experiences a good transition during their life it will help them to stay away from crime whereas if they have a bad transition period it can actually cause them to start or resume a criminal lifestyle. If these transitions are experienced to soon or too late it can also impact your life. Our textbook talks about these transitions as being too soon when a girl gets pregnant at a young age or too late when a teenager gets into the wrong crowd and makes choices that affects their futures and how these decisions can put their life on a totally different path than the one that they were on. The life course theory and the social learning theory are similar in that they both have the principle that a person is born not knowing how to be a criminal but rather learn how to be a criminal over the span of their life. The life course theory and the social learning theory are different in that the life course theory concentrates more on the experiences of a persons life that affects them and if it influences them to become criminals or not whereas the social learning theory concentrates more on how the person is shaped by the society that they live in and how that influences them to become criminals or not. Compare and contrast the different theories of victimization. In addition to explaining the theories, discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Also, use one of the theories to explain why women are more likely than men to be the victims of rape and domestic violence. There are four different theories of victimization. These include victim precipitation theory, lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and the routine activities theory. The victim precipitation theory is where some people actually initiate the confrontation that eventually leads to their injury and death (Siegel, 2011). There are two ways that this theory can happen. It can either be active or passive. With active precipitation you have the victim that is showing threating behavior along with an exchange of words that sometimes even leads to the victim attacking first. In the passive precipitation the victim acts in a way that can encourage the person doing the attacking to attack or sometimes the victim can even send out threating signals that causes them to be a victim of crime. I believe that the passive precipitation form of the victim precipitation theory would be the reason why women more than men are the victims of rape and domestic violence. Some women unknowingly flirt or exhibit sexual behavior that can encourage or entice a male into wanting to have his way with her. In the case of domestic violence the woman can cause the man to feel thr eatened by her actions without meaning to. She may be mad and yell or strike at him and he feels threatened so he fights back. This is not an excuse for a male to strike a female of course but it can happen. One weakness of the victim precipitation theory is that with the passive precipitation form of this theory a person can become a victim when they actually had nothing at all to do with what was going on. The lifestyle theory is where crime is not a random occurrence; rather it is a function of the victims lifestyle (Siegel, 2011). Basically the more risk factors that you have in your life such as drinking and taking drugs the higher the chance that you will become a victim at some point. I like the way that our book points out that if you live a party type lifestyle in college it makes you more susceptible to becoming a victim. If you are a person on the other hand that is settled down and stays home a lot it reduces your chances of becoming a victim. The deviant place theory is the greater the exposure to dangerous places, the more likely people are to become victims of crime and violence (Siegel, 2011). This is basically that the person does not exhibit any behaviors to encourage the criminal to victimize them but because of where they live they become a victim. For example people that live in the poorer areas of the city are more susceptible to becoming a victim than say someone that lives in the suburb outside of the city where they can better control the elements that they live in and around. In the poorer areas is where I believe most of your criminals and homeless live and people who live around those elements become easier targets for the criminals. The routine activities theory is where victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders (Siegel, 2011). Basically this theory is where you have three things that can increase the likelihood of crime taking place. You have houses that are in a nice neighborhood that have nice things in them that entice a criminal to break in to get these things to sell, you have no one home to guard the house and the nice things in the house and you have the criminal that is motivated by seeing this and wanting to profit from breaking into the house. Explain the theory of general deterrence and the theory of specific deterrence. Discuss how certainty, severity, and speed of punishment impact general deterrence? Then, discuss whether our current criminal justice system effectively produces general deterrence and specific deterrence? If so, how? If not, what needs to change to produce general deterrence and/or specific deterrence? Be sure to answer these questions in regard to both general and specific deterrence. Theory of general deterrence is a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties, convincing the potential law violator that the pains associated with crime outweighs its benefits (Siegel, 2011). Basically with the theory of general deterrence it is saying that you will have a lower crime rate if the criminal believes that they will be severely punished for the crime that they commit. The certainty of punishment aspect impacts the general deterrence theory in that offenders that believe that they will be punished and that the punishment is not worth it to them will cause them to not commit the crime whereas offenders that believe that when they get caught they will not be punished will commit the crime. Certainty of punishment has a huge impact on a criminal when they are deciding to commit a crime or not. If a criminal believes that they will be severely punished for the crime they will think twice before committing the crime. However this aspect has little effe ct on the general deterrence theory. The swiftness of punishment does not have a large impact on the general deterrence theory because it takes so long to get through the court systems that by the time the criminal is sentenced that the effect of deterring the crime has long since been forgotten. It would be a good deterrent if the punishment was carried out quickly I think. Like in the old days when someone killed someone they were taken out by the local sheriff and hung. This being witnessed by the community deterred anyone else from wanting to commit the same crime and the same thing happening to them. Theory of specific deterrence is the view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts (Siegel, 2011). Basically with the theory of specific deterrence you have the thought that a very high punishment or long jail sentence would keep a criminal from repeating their crime. Some times this can backfire though where the worse the punishment the more the criminal wants to commit the crime. This can be caused by the criminal wanting to show how big and bad they are and that the judicial system did not win. I think that the criminal judicial system produces more general deterrence than specific deterrence because we see more people that are deterred away from crime because of the perception that they have of the punishment that they will receive than we have people that dont drink and drive because of a fine and a small time spent in jail. If the punishments were higher for drinking and driving then I think we would have more specific d eterrence than we do. Social disorganization theory links crime rates to neighborhood ecological characteristics. Identify and discuss these characteristics and explain how/why they lead to crime. Use social disorganization theory to explain why there are more robberies in Atlanta, GA compared to Kennesaw, GA. The characteristics of the social disorganization theory are poverty, social/community disorganization, breakdown of traditional values, criminal areas, cultural transmission and criminal careers. Poverty can lead to crime in the neighborhoods that have a poverty concentration effect occur due to the middle class leaving and only the poorer residents remain. Our textbook states that, urban areas marked by concentrated poverty become isolated and insulated from the social mainstream and more prone to criminal activity (Siegel, 2011). In an area where you have white flight occur the people that are left have a harder time keeping gangs and violence under control due to their limited resources. Social/Community disorganization occurs when you have a lack of informal social control. When the families in these communities have a hard time keeping their kids under control and away from delinquent behavior this in turn causes crime to occur. When a breakdown of traditional values occurs the youth feel detached from their communities this leaves them more open to be recruited by the neighborhood bad guys and this leads to gang being formed and therefore crime being done in the neighborhood. Cultural transmission occurs when you have community fear. In neighborhoods that have teenagers that are getting into trouble a lot and a lot of empty stores the residents of these neighborhoods become fearful that they will become a victim of crime and this causes them to withdraw from their neighborhood. This fear is then passed on to the younger generation. According to our textbook the crime rates are elevated in highly transient, mixed-use and changing neighborhoods in which the fabric of social life has become frayed (Siegel, 2011). Atlanta is more of a mixed used society than Kennesaw and with the bigger businesses in Atlanta they have more people moving in and out of the city for work that is constantly changing the different neighborhoods in Atlanta. Kennesaw does not have the big corporate offices and therefore does not have the change of the neighborhoods and appears to be more stable than Atlanta. Atlanta is unable to provide the basic services to all of its residents and where you have a lot of people unemployed and homeless with a lot of time on their hands you usually have a high crime rate. You see more homeless people in Atlanta than you do Kennesaw. Also you have the concentration effect going on in Atlanta where a lot of the middle class have left the city leaving the disadvantaged citizens in the city. Kennesaw does not seem to have the concentration effect that we see in Atlanta. When you have a poverty concentration you see more criminal activity and a higher rate of robberies. Source: Siegel, L. J. (2011). Criminology, the core. (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub Co.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay examples --

â€Å"Toepasbaarheid PRINCE2 binnen de IT† Inhoudsopgave 1. INLEIDING 3 2. TIJD 4 3. KWALITEIT 6 4. KOSTEN EN BATEN 8 5. CHANGE 9 6. RISK 11 7. BRONNEN 13 1. Inleiding De methode PRINCE2 is de opvolger van de methode PRINCE, die in de jaren tachtig primair werd ontwikkeld voor ICT-projecten. Deze methoden zijn ontwikkeld door het bundelen van praktijkervaringen, zogenaamde best-practices, en werd vooral binnen de ICT-industrie gebruikt. PRINCE2 is in 1996 op de markt gebracht als een verbeterde en uitgebreide versie van PRINCE en bedoeld als projectmanagementmethode die voor alle types van projecten, dus niet enkel IT, kan gebruikt worden. Dit document geeft een inzicht in de toepasbaarheid van PRINCE2 in de IT. De volgende 5 onderwerpen worden geanalyseerd: †¢ Tijd †¢ Kwaliteit †¢ Kosten/Baten †¢ Change †¢ Risk 2. Tijd Bij het toepassen van PRINCE2 als projectmanagementmethode wordt er veel aandacht besteed aan tijd. In bijna elke fase komt het onderdeel tijd aan bod. Bij het opstellen van de PID wordt er een Product Breakdown Structure gemaakt. De Product Breakdown Structure geeft een hià «rarchisch overzicht van de producten die opgeleverd dienen te worden. Nadat de PBS gemaakt is worden alle onderdelen beschreven met een toelichting. Hierna wordt er een activiteitenoverzicht gemaakt. Aan de activiteitenoverzicht wordt begonnen met het maken van een estimated planning. Hierin wordt er een schatting gemaakt hoeveel tijd er nodig is om de producten te realiseren. Dit wordt per product gedaan. Hieronder is een voorbeeld van een estimated planning te zien: Afbeelding bron: PID Projectgroep INF3D1 IPBIT7 Nadat de estimated planning is gemaakt wordt er een scheduled planning gemaakt. Bij de scheduled pl... ...niceren† continu uitgevoerd. Er moet niet alleen gecommuniceerd worden tussen de vorige 4 stappen, er moet ook gecommuniceerd worden over risico’s binnen het project en buiten het project naar bijvoorbeeld belanghebbenden. De volgende managementproducten zijn uitstekend geschikt voor dit communicatieaspect: †¢ Checkpoint rapporten †¢ Highlight rapporten †¢ Fase-end rapporten †¢ End project rapport †¢ Lesson learned rapporten 7. Bronnen Janssen, P. & Jean-Pierre V. C. (2011). Projectmanagement volgens PRINCE2. Amsterdam: Pearson Education. PRINCE2. (08-01-2014). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Geraadpleegd 14-04-2014, van Quint. (z.d.). Quint Best Practices. In Quint Wellington Redwood: Best Practices - PRINCE2 ®. Geraadpleegd 14-04-2014, van

Human Cloning is an Ethical Nightmare Essay -- Clones Biology Ethics

Technology today is growing at an alarming rate. Things that seemed impossible only a few years ago are now a reality, and some far fetched things such as time travel, that are present in today's science fiction movies, might possibly become reality soon as well. One prevalent idea that seemed impossible a few years ago but that is now a reality is the idea of human cloning. The fantasy that some people had about having clones of themselves or of animals a few years ago is not a fantasy anymore; it is a reality. With the recent cloning of a sheep named Dolly by scientists in Scotland, the powers of cloning are becoming more prevalent. As daunting as this may seem, the human race must now face all the issues related to human cloning, and the one question that comes up amidst all of the relative confusion about the issue is this: Is human cloning a medical miracle or an ethical nightmare? As confusing and complicated as cloning may seem, it is actually a very simple idea to grasp. Garvey says, "In essence, cloning is the artificial fashioning of an identical twin, one that will be younger that its sibling" (7). Taken at surface level, the general principle of cloning is quite simple; an individual gene from a subject is isolated and transplanted in a medium, such as bacteria or yeast, and that isolated gene reproduces and multiplies, creating a clone of the original gene. The media seemed to have lumped cloning into one generalized idea, but in actuality, there are three distinct types of cloning. These three distinct types of cloning are gene cloning, cellular cloning, and whole-organism cloning. Because the media has done a poor job of distinguishing among the three different types of cloning, confusion has arisen a... ...ical code? In many cases the answer is going to be no. Such is the case with cloning. Its promises are extremely appealing, but the price that the cloned people or organs would have to pay is too great. Even though the technology may be present to actually clone things, humans must learn when to put a cap on such things. So the question remains: Is human cloning a medical miracle or an ethical nightmare? It seems obvious that the answer to that question is an ethical nightmare. There is too much at stake in this matter, as far as human life goes, to risk it all on a bunch of promises. The ethical objections far outweigh the supposed gains of this practice, and thus should not become a common practice in today's society. Humans must understand that even though something can be done, does not make that thing right, and such is the case with human cloning.